How to photograph backlit subjects
Backlighting creates a pleasing rim of light around subjects, separating them from the background. Here are some tips to make photos glow when light comes from behind the subject.
When the subject is backlit
When photographing a backlit subject, make sure that your camera’s light meter doesn’t interpret all the light hitting it as needing to be stopped down (smaller sized aperture/larger F-number) – unless your desired outcome is a silhouette.
♦ Exposure Compensation
Set your camera’s Exposure Compensation to somewhere between -1 and -2, depending on the intensity of the backlight. This retains detail in the shadow areas of the subject.
♦ Use a reflector
When subjects are close, use a reflector to bounce some light onto the front of your subject. The reflector adds “fill” light without using a flash. Position the reflector so the light “fills” the darker side of the subject or a face.
You can purchase reflectors specially made for photography, or get creative and make one yourself. Some photographers use poster or foam core board.
Tips for photographing backlit landscapes
Shooting backlit landscapes can be tricky. The goal is to retain detail in objects on the ground without washing out the sky. There are several ways to accomplish this.
♦ Metering – With sunrises and sunsets, one rule of thumb is to meter on the sky with the sun just out of the bottom of the camera frame. Use this as your starting exposure.
♦ Filter – You can also help balance the tones of the ground and sky by using a graduated neutral density (GND) filter, which are dark at the top and gradually fade to clear. A two-stop GND filter (dark area is two f-stops darker than the clear area) is suggested for sunrises and sunsets.
♦ Bracket – Shoot multiple exposures, known as bracketing, of a backlit scene with different settings; expose one shot for for the sky and and one for the ground. You’ll need to merge the individual photos when post processing images using an editing program that supports layers.
Some digital cameras have a High Dynamic Range shooting mode than allows for smoother transitions between darker and lighter colors. Three shots are taken at different exposures then combined together in-camera.
For best results, use a tripod when bracketing.
As with any photographic technique, practice makes picture perfect.
These quick tips were taken from a more comprehensive article Photography & the direction of light by James Jordan.