One of the most popular forms of photography is macro photography. It allows the photographer to get very close to a subject, capturing aspects of it in stunning detail.
“Macro” is a term normally referring to the ability of a lens to enlarge the image it creates of an object so that image and object are exactly of the same size. Many lenses are labeled Macro but are, in fact, nothing more than close-focusing lenses.
True macro lens
A true macro lens will allow the photographer to capture the smallest details of an insect, flower, coin or other small object. The lens usually has a ratio of 1:1.
Macro lenses are almost always among the best digital single reflex camera lenses available. They have great contrast, resolution and low distortion.
Macro lenses and focal length
Macro lenses with short focal lengths, such as 50mm, are usually less expensive than macro lenses with a longer focal length. But short focal length macro lenses must be held very close to the subject and sometimes lighting may be inadequate.
Longer focal length macro lenses (eg. 100mm, 150mm) allow for improved lighting since the photographer can keep more distance between the camera and subject without sacrificing detail.